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    A qualitative investigation of coaches’ doping confrontation efficacy beliefs

    Boardley, ID, Grix, J ORCID logoORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7315-1641, Ntoumanis, N and Smith, AL (2019) A qualitative investigation of coaches’ doping confrontation efficacy beliefs. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 45. ISSN 1469-0292

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    © 2019 Elsevier Ltd Objectives: To investigate the nature of doping confrontation efficacy (DCE) beliefs – as well as their antecedents and outcomes – through a qualitative examination of Sullivan, Feltz, LaForge-MacKenzie, and Hwang's (2015) DCE model with high-level technical and strength and conditioning (S&C) coaches from athletics and rugby union. Design: Qualitative, descriptive. Methods: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 21 coaches (nmale = 15, nfemale = 6; ntechnical = 11, nS&C = 10; nathletics = 5, nrugby = 13, nrugby & athletics = 3), working at a regional, national, or international level in athletics, rugby, or both sports. Study data were analyzed deductively using content analysis techniques. Results: Data analysis supported the relevance of all five dimensions of DCE (i.e., personal resources, initiation, legitimacy, intimacy, and expected outcomes) to coaching practice in athletics and rugby, identifying key potential antecedents (e.g., coach education) and outcomes (e.g., likelihood of confronting athletes on doping-related issues) of coach DCE beliefs relevant to one or more of the DCE sub-dimensions. Deficits in coaches’ anti-doping knowledge were also identified, supporting the need for improved anti-doping education for coaches. Conclusion: By conducting the first qualitative examination of DCE beliefs, we enriched understanding of the DCE model and identified a range of possible antecedents and outcomes of DCE beliefs in technical and S&C coaches. Based on the results of this study, recommendations are posed for revising and expanding the DCE model. Practical recommendations are also offered for coach education.

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