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Next-Generation Additive Manufacturing of Complete Standalone Sodium-Ion Energy Storage Architectures

Down, MP ORCID logoORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6154-4974, Martínez-Periñán, E, Foster, CW ORCID logoORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5487-2803, Lorenzo, E, Smith, GC and Banks, CE ORCID logoORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0756-9764 (2019) Next-Generation Additive Manufacturing of Complete Standalone Sodium-Ion Energy Storage Architectures. Advanced Energy Materials, 9 (11). ISSN 1614-6832

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Abstract

© 2019 Manchester Metropolitan University. Published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim The first entirely AM/3D-printed sodium-ion (full-cell) battery is reported herein, presenting a paradigm shift in the design and prototyping of energy-storage architectures. AM/3D-printing compatible composite materials are developed for the first time, integrating the active materials NaMnO 2 and TiO 2 within a porous supporting material, before being AM/3D-printed into a proof-of-concept model based upon the basic geometry of commercially existing AA battery designs. The freestanding and completely AM/3D-fabricated device demonstrates a respectable performance of 84.3 mAh g −1 with a current density of 8.43 mA g −1 ; note that the structure is typically comprised of 80% thermoplastic, but yet, still works and functions as an energy-storage platform. The AM/3D-fabricated device is critically benchmarked against a battery developed using the same active materials, but fabricated via a traditional manufacturing method utilizing an ink-based/doctor-bladed methodology, which is found to exhibit a specific capacity of 98.9 mAh m −2 (116.35 mAh g −1 ). The fabrication of fully AM/3D-printed energy-storage architectures compares favorably with traditional approaches, with the former providing a new direction in battery manufacturing. This work represents a paradigm shift in the technological and design considerations in battery and energy-storage architectures.

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