Manchester Metropolitan University's Research Repository

Substrate displacement colorimetry for the detection of diarylethylamines

Joseph, Lowdon and Eersels, Kasper and Rogosic, Renato and Heidt, Benjamin and Dilien, Hanne and Steen Redeker, Erik and Peeters, Marloes and van Grinsven, Bart and Cleij, Thomas (2019) Substrate displacement colorimetry for the detection of diarylethylamines. Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, 282. pp. 137-144. ISSN 0925-4005


Available under License Creative Commons Attribution Non-commercial No Derivatives.

Download (1MB) | Preview


In this work, a novel detection assay for the new psychoactive substance (NPS) 2-methoxiphenidine (2-MXP) and other diarylethylamines is introduced. The assay is based on the competitive displacement of dye molecules from molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) by the target molecule. The assay was fully characterized by studying the affinity of the MIP for six common dyes, expressed as the binding factor (BF). The results of this study indicate that the mathematical relationship between the BF of a dye and the imprinting factor (IF) for the target could be used for the prediction of the efficacy of the displacement assay. Dye-loaded MIP particles where incubated with the target, two adulterants and two legal pharmacological compounds. The target has a higher affinity for the MIP than the dye and displaces it out of the nanocavities of the receptor leading to a colour change in the filtrate that can be observed with the naked eye. Incubation of the MIP particles with the adulterants and legal medicines did not result in any observable change in absorbance. The robust, fast and low-cost nature of the assay, combined with its tailorable selectivity and generic nature, illustrate its potential as a pre-screening tool for the identification of narcotic substances in unidentified powders. Keywords: Molecularly imprinted polymer, displacement assay, colorimetry, new psychoactive substance identification

Impact and Reach


Activity Overview

Additional statistics for this dataset are available via IRStats2.


Actions (login required)

View Item View Item