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    Robust Methods for Real-Time Diabetic Foot Ulcer Detection and Localization on Mobile Devices

    Goyal, Manu, Reeves, Neil ORCID logoORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9213-4580, Rajbhandari, Satyan and Yap, Moi Hoon ORCID logoORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7681-4287 (2019) Robust Methods for Real-Time Diabetic Foot Ulcer Detection and Localization on Mobile Devices. IEEE Journal of Biomedical and Health Informatics, 23 (4). pp. 1730-1741. ISSN 2168-2194

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    Current practice for Diabetic Foot Ulcers (DFU) screening involves detection and localization by podiatrists. Existing automated solutions either focus on segmentation or classification. In this work, we design deep learning methods for real-time DFU localization. To produce a robust deep learning model, we collected an extensive database of 1775 images of DFU. Two medical experts produced the ground truths of this dataset by outlining the region of interest of DFU with an annotator software. Using 5-fold cross-validation, overall, Faster R-CNN with InceptionV2 model using two-tier transfer learning achieved a mean average precision of 91.8%, the speed of 48 ms for inferencing a single image and with a model size of 57.2 MB. To demonstrate the robustness and practicality of our solution to real-time prediction, we evaluated the performance of the models on a NVIDIA Jetson TX2 and a smartphone app. This work demonstrates the capability of deep learning in real-time localization of DFU, which can be further improved with a more extensive dataset.

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