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Antifungal activity of commercial essential oils and biocides against Candida Albicans

Malic (Angelou), S and Serra, E and Verran, J and Hidalgo-Bastida, LA and Williams, D (2018) Antifungal activity of commercial essential oils and biocides against Candida Albicans. Pathogens, 7 (1). ISSN 2076-0817

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Abstract

Management of oral candidosis, most frequently caused by Candida albicans, is limited due to the relatively low number of antifungal drugs and the emergence of antifungal tolerance. In this study, the antifungal activity of a range of commercial essential oils, two terpenes, chlorhexidine and triclosan was evaluated against C. albicans in planktonic and biofilm form. In addition, cytotoxicity of the most promising compounds was assessed using murine fibroblasts and expressed as half maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50). Antifungal activity was determined using a broth microdilution assay. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was established against planktonic cells cultured in a range of concentrations of the test agents. The minimal biofilm eradication concentration (MBEC) was determined by measuring re-growth of cells after pre-formed biofilm was treated for 24 h with the test agents. All tested commercial essential oils demonstrated anticandidal activity (MICs from 0.06% (v/v) to 0.4% (v/v)) against planktonic cultures, with a noticeable increase in resistance exhibited by biofilms (MBECs > 1.5% (v/v)). The IC50s of the commercial essential oils were lower than the MICs, while a one hour application of chlorhexidine was not cytotoxic at concentrations lower than the MIC. In conclusion, the tested commercial essential oils exhibit potential as therapeutic agents against C. albicans, although host cell cytotoxicity is a consideration when developing these new treatments.

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