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Can Ultrasound or pH Influence Pd Distribution on the Surface of HAP to Improve Its Catalytic Properties in the Dry Reforming of Methane?

Kamieniak, J and Bernalte, E and Doyle, AM and Kelly, PJ and Banks, CE (2017) Can Ultrasound or pH Influence Pd Distribution on the Surface of HAP to Improve Its Catalytic Properties in the Dry Reforming of Methane? Catalysis Letters. pp. 1-9. ISSN 1011-372X

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Abstract

The influence of ultrasound and different pH pre-treatments during the metal doping/modification of a hydroxyapatite (HAP) support is investigated. HAP is first synthesised via a hard-template synthetic route using carbon nanorods followed by their full physiochemical characterisation. The HAP was found to be crystalline and comprised a mesoporous structure as observed via XRD and nitrogen adsorption with a BET surface area of 97.57 (±1.16) m2 g−1. Ultrasound-assisted ion exchange (IE) and incipient wetness impregnation (IW) methodologies were employed to decorate the surface of HAP with Pd0 and are compared to previous procedures. The influence of pH upon the distribution of Pd0 throughout the samples during the doping process is also studied. All the prepared samples were evaluated for their catalytic activity towards dry reforming of methane (DRM) and the reaction was monitored via a thermal conductivity detector, coupled with gas chromatography (GC-TCD). It was found that ultrasound-assisted IE significantly accelerated the process from 3 days to 3 h and with the Pd0 metal remaining highly distributed upon the HAP with minor changes in catalytic conversions. Moreover, the ultrasound-assisted IW method successfully improved the Pd0 distribution and catalytic performance. On the other hand, the dispersion of the metal was unaffected after pH treatments in IE with no catalytic improvements observed, in contrast to IW, where considerable increase in metal distribution and subsequently catalytic performance was observed.

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