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    Hysteresis in muscle

    Lynch, S, Ramos, J, Jones, DA and Degens, H (2017) Hysteresis in muscle. International Journal of Bifurcation and Chaos, 27 (1). p. 1730003. ISSN 0218-1274

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    This paper presents examples of hysteresis from a broad range of scientific disciplines and demonstrates a variety of forms including clockwise, counterclockwise, butterfly, pinched and kiss-and-go, respectively. These examples include mechanical systems made up of springs and dampers which have been the main components of muscle models for nearly one hundred years. For the first time, as far as the authors are aware, hysteresis is demonstrated in single fibre muscle when subjected to both lengthening and shortening periodic contractions. The hysteresis observed in the experiments is of two forms. Without any relaxation at the end of lengthening or shortening, the hysteresis loop is a convex clockwise loop, whereas a concave clockwise hysteresis loop (labeled as "kiss-and-go") is formed when the muscle is relaxed at the end of lengthening and shortening. This paper also presents a mathematical model which reproduces the hysteresis curves in the same form as the experimental data.

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