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    The fabrication, characterisation and electrochemical investigation of screen-printed graphene electrodes

    Randviir, Edward P ORCID logoORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7252-8494, Brownson, Dale AC, Metters, Jonathan P, Kadara, Rashid O and Banks, Craig E ORCID logoORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0756-9764 (2014) The fabrication, characterisation and electrochemical investigation of screen-printed graphene electrodes. Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, 16 (10). pp. 4598-4611. ISSN 1463-9076

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    Abstract

    We report the fabrication, characterisation (SEM, Raman spectroscopy, XPS and ATR) and electrochemical implementation of novel screen-printed graphene electrodes. Electrochemical characterisation of the fabricated graphene electrodes is undertaken using an array of electroactive redox probes and biologically relevant analytes, namely: potassium ferrocyanide(II), hexaammine-ruthenium(III) chloride, N,N,N0 ,N0-tetramethyl-pphenylenediamine (TMPD), b-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH), L-ascorbic acid (AA), uric acid (UA) and dopamine hydrochloride (DA). The electroanalytical capabilities of the fabricated electrodes are also considered towards the sensing of AA and DA. The electrochemical and (electro)analytical performances of the fabricated screen-printed graphene electrodes are considered with respect to the relative surface morphologies and material compositions (elucidated via SEM, Raman, XPS and ATR spectroscopy), the density of electronic states (% global coverage of edge-plane like sites/defects) and the specific fabrication conditions utilised. Comparisons are made between two screen-printed graphene electrodes and alternative graphite based screen-printed electrodes. The graphene electrodes are fabricated utilising two different commercially prepared ‘graphene’ inks, which have long screen ink lifetimes (43 hours), thus this is the first report of a true mass-reproducible screen-printable graphene ink. Through employment of appropriate controls/comparisons we are able to report a critical assessment of these screen-printed graphene electrodes. This work is of high importance and demonstrates a proof-of-concept approach to screen-printed graphene electrodes that are highly reproducible, paving the way for mass-producible graphene sensing platforms in the future.

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