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    Using PETTLEP imagery to improve music performance: A review

    Wright, DJ, Wakefield, CJ and Smith, D (2014) Using PETTLEP imagery to improve music performance: A review. MUSICAE SCIENTIAE, 18. ISSN 1029-8649


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    Imagery is commonly used by both athletes and musicians as an additional training aid to enhance performance. Although considerable research attention has been paid to this psychological intervention technique in sporting settings, studies investigating the beneficial effects of imagery on musical performance are less common. Imagery research that has been conducted in musical settings has tended to show that imagery is beneficial in improving performance, although few guidelines exist in the music literature regarding how musicians could use imagery to improve their performance. In this article, we review the research which has investigated the use of imagery as a performance enhancing technique in musical settings to date. We then outline a model for designing imagery interventions (known as the PETTLEP model) which has produced beneficial performance effects when implemented in sporting settings, and discuss how it could be used by musicians to enhance performance.

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