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    Development of novel electrochemical measurements for water quality

    Kolliopoulos, Athanasios (2014) Development of novel electrochemical measurements for water quality. Doctoral thesis (PhD), Manchester Metropolitan University.


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    This thesis reports the development of novel electrochemical methods applied for the quantification of important analytes in the field of water quality. Chapter 1 of this thesis focuses on the analytical methodologies used and the current requirements for low cost, environmental friendly and portable analytical tools into the field of water quality. In this chapter it is described how the analytical methodologies based on the use of screen-printed electrochemical sensors meets these requirements and why the development of such methodologies is the main purpose of this thesis. Chapter 2 overviews the relevant fundamental electrochemical concepts with which this thesis is concerned. Chapter 3 gives a synopsis of the electrode materials as well as screen-printing upon which this thesis is based upon with a detailed overview not only of the screen-printing process, but also its current applications within the field of electrochemistry with particular attention paid towards the development of novel screen-printed electrode sensors applied into the field of water quality. Chapter 4 describes the generic experimental methods used in this thesis. It gives details of the electrode materials, chemicals and real samples used in this thesis. Additionally it describes the screen-printing process on which the production of the in-door carbon based screen-printed sensors was based. Chapter 5 reports the first examples of using electrochemical sensors for the target analytes selenium (IV), antimony (III) phenol and chlorophenols within drinking water; simplification of these analytical protocols is demonstrated through the production of screen-printed sensors. Chapter 6 describes the development of screen-printed graphite sensors for the novel detection of dissolved phosphorus within environmental samples through the electrochemical adaption of a colorimetric protocol. The electroanalytical protocol for the detection of dissolved phosphorus, a key parameter of eutrophication, was independently verified with ion chromatography and inductively coupled - plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. Finally, Chapter 7 reports the first example of sensing cyclohexylamine and morpholine commonly used in industrial water as corrosion inhibitors for steam condensate treatment via indirect electrochemical protocol using screen-printed sensors. This is the first time that screen-printed sensors are applied into the detection of water treatment chemicals.

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