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    The cooperative transforming effects of PAX3-FKHR and IGF-II on mouse myoblasts

    Slevin, Mark, Parker, Craig J., Kumar, Patricia and Wang, Weizhi (2005) The cooperative transforming effects of PAX3-FKHR and IGF-II on mouse myoblasts. International Journal of Oncology, 27 (4). pp. 1087-1096. ISSN 1019-6439

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    Alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma (ARMS) cells express high levels of PAX3-FKHR and IGF-II. In this study, we have investigated the effects of PAX3-FKHR and IGF-II on the expression of muscle regulatory factors (myf5, MyoD and myogenin), and platelet derived growth factor-B (PDGF-B) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in mouse C2C12 myoblasts in vitro. PAX3-FKHR induced cell cycling of C2C12 cells and promoted proliferation whilst blocking myogenesis. IGF-II inhibited their differentiation without influencing proliferation. Western blotting showed that PAX3-FKHR and IGF-II blocked the expression of myogenin and MyoD respectively. Since MyoD affects early myogenesis and myogenin controls terminal differentiation, a combination of PAX3-FKHR and IGF-II synergistically blocks myogenesis at several different stages in differentiation. We have also shown that the major survival and angiogenic cytokines, PDGF-B and VEGF, were induced by IGF-II and PAX3- FKHR respectively. A combination of PAX3-FKHR and IGF-II could synergistically up regulate the expression of PDGF-B and VEGF and stabilize their high expression levels. Our results suggest that high expression of PAX3-FKHR and IGF-II in ARMS synergistically play a key role in oncogenesis and tumour progression of ARMS.

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