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Arabinoxylans from rice bran and wheat immunomodulatory potentials: A Review Article

Fadel, A and Plunkett, A and Li, W and Ranneh, Y and Gyamfi, V and Salmon, Y and Nyaranga, RR and Ashworth, J (2018) Arabinoxylans from rice bran and wheat immunomodulatory potentials: A Review Article. Nutrition & Food Science, 48 (1). pp. 97-110. ISSN 0034-6659

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Abstract

Purpose - The purpose of this review is to discuss recent research on arabinoxylans from rice bran and wheat by-products and their immunomodulatory potential. Also, a potential receptor for arabinoxylans is proposed in relation to arabinoxylan structure. Design/methodology/approach - This review summarises recent publications on arabinoxylans from rice bran and wheat, classification of arabinoxylans, a brief background on their methods of extraction, and their immunomodulatory potential as they induce proinflammatory responses in vitro, in vivo and humans. The mechanism of action by which arabinoxylans modulate immune activity has yet to be discovered, however, we have proposed a potential receptor for arabinoxylans in relation to arabinoxylans’ structure and molecular weight. Findings - The effects of arabinoxylans from rice bran and wheat on the immune response was found to cause a pro-inflammatory response in vitro, in vivo and humans. In addition, the immune response depends on their structure, the degree of branching and origin. Originality/Value - This review paper focuses on the effects of arabinoxylans from rice bran and wheat on immunomodulatory potential in vitro, in vivo and humans. A new mechanism of action has been proposed based on the literature and via the link between arabinoxylan and lipopolysaccharide structures, molecular weight and a proposed receptor, which might be activated via both molecules.

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