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Preservation of terrestrial organic carbon in marine sediments off shore Taiwan: mountain building and atmospheric carbon dioxide sequestration

Kao, S-J and Hilton, RG and Selvaraj, K and Dai, M and Zehetner, F and Huang, J-C and Hsu, S-C and Sparkes, R and Liu, JT and Lee, T-Y and Yang, J-YT and Galy, A and Xu, X and Hovius, N (2014) Preservation of terrestrial organic carbon in marine sediments off shore Taiwan: mountain building and atmospheric carbon dioxide sequestration. Earth Surface Dynamics. ISSN 2196-632X

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Abstract

Abstract. Geological sequestration of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) can be achieved by the erosion of organic carbon (OC) from the terrestrial biosphere and its burial in long-lived marine sediments. Rivers on mountain islands of Oceania in the western Pacific have very high rates of OC export to the ocean, yet its preservation offshore remains poorly constrained. Here we use the OC content (Corg, %), radiocarbon (Δ14Corg) and stable isotope (δ13Corg) composition of sediments offshore Taiwan to assess the fate of terrestrial OC. We account for rock-derived fossil OC to assess the preservation of OC eroded from the terrestrial biosphere (non-fossil OC) during flood discharges (hyperpycnal river plumes) and when river inputs are dispersed more widely (hypopycnal). The Corg, Δ14Corg and δ13Corg of marine sediment traps and cores indicate that during flood discharges, terrestrial OC is transferred efficiently to the deep ocean and accumulates offshore with little evidence for terrestrial OC loss. In marine sediments fed by dispersive river inputs, the Corg, Δ14Corg and δ13Corg are consistent with mixing of marine OC and terrestrial OC and suggest that efficient preservation of terrestrial OC (> 70%) is also associated with hypopycnal delivery. Re-burial of fossil OC is pervasive. Our findings from Taiwan suggest that erosion and marine burial of terrestrial non-fossil OC may sequester > 8 TgC yr−1 across Oceania, a significant geological CO2 sink which requires better constraint. We postulate that mountain islands of Oceania provide strong link between tectonic uplift and the carbon cycle, one moderated by the climatic variability that controls terrestrial OC delivery to the ocean.

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