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A comparison of self-focus versus attentional explanations of choking

Wilson, Mark and Chattington, Mark and Marple-Horvat, Dilwyn E. and Smith, Nickolas C. (2007) A comparison of self-focus versus attentional explanations of choking. Journal of sport and exercise psychology, 29 (4). pp. 439-456. ISSN 1543-2904

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Abstract

This study examined attentional processes underlying skilled motor performance in threatening situations. Twenty-four trained participants performed a simulated rally driving task under conditions designed either to direct the focus of attention toward the explicit monitoring of driving or a distracting secondary task. Performance (lap time) was compared with a “driving only” control condition. Each condition was completed under nonevaluative and evaluative instructional sets designed to manipulate anxiety. Mental effort was indexed by self-report and dual-task performance measures. The results showed little change in performance in the high-threat explicit monitoring task condition, compared with either the low-threat or the high-threat distraction conditions. Mental effort increased, however, in all high- as opposed to low-threat conditions. Performance effectiveness was therefore maintained under threat although this was at the expense of reduced processing efficiency. The results provide stronger support for the predictions of processing efficiency theory than self-focus theories of choking.

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