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Achieving energy balance with a high‐fat meal does not enhance skeletal muscle adaptation and impairs glycemic response in a sleep‐low training model

Areta, José L and Iraki, Juma and Owens, Daniel J and Joanisse, Sophie and Philp, Andrew and Morton, James P and Hallén, Jostein (2020) Achieving energy balance with a high‐fat meal does not enhance skeletal muscle adaptation and impairs glycemic response in a sleep‐low training model. Experimental Physiology. ISSN 0958-0670

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Abstract

Training with low carbohydrate availability (LCHO) has been shown to acutely enhance endurance training skeletal muscle response, but the concomitant energy deficit (ED) in LCHO interventions has represented a confounding factor in past research. This study aimed at determining if achieving energy balance with high fat (EB‐HF) acutely enhances the adaptive response in LCHO compared to ED with low fat (ED‐LF). In a crossover design, nine well‐trained males completed a ‘sleep‐low’ protocol: on day 1 they cycled to deplete muscle glycogen while reaching a set energy expenditure (30 kcal (kg of fat free mass (FFM))−1). Post‐exercise, low carbohydrate, protein‐matched meals completely (EB‐HF, 30 kcal (kg FFM)−1) or partially (ED‐LF, 9 kcal (kg FFM)−1) replaced the energy expended, with the majority of energy derived from fat in EB‐HF. In the morning of day 2, participants exercised fasted, and skeletal muscle and blood samples were collected and a carbohydrate–protein drink was ingested at 0.5 h recovery. Muscle glycogen showed no treatment effect (P < 0.001) and decreased from 350 ± 98 to 192 ± 94 mmol (kg dry mass)−1 between rest and 0.5 h recovery. Phosphorylation status of the mechanistic target of rapamycin and AMP‐activated protein kinase pathway proteins showed only time effects. mRNA expression of p53 increased after exercise (P = 0.005) and was higher in ED‐LF at 3.5 h compared to EB‐HF (P = 0.027). Plasma glucose and insulin area under the curve (P < 0.04) and peak values (P ≤ 0.05) were higher in EB‐HF after the recovery drink. Achieving energy balance with a high‐fat meal in a ‘train‐low’ (‘sleep‐low’) model did not enhance markers of skeletal muscle adaptation and impaired glycaemia in response to a recovery drink following training in the morning.

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