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Place crowd safety, crowd science? Case studies and application

Still, Keith and Papalexi, Marina and Fan, Yiyi and Bamford, David (2020) Place crowd safety, crowd science? Case studies and application. Journal of Place Management and Development. ISSN 1753-8335

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Abstract

Purpose – This paper aims to explore the development and application of place crowd safety management tools for areas of public assembly and major events, from a practitioner perspective. Design/methodology/approach – The crowd safety risk assessment model is known as design, information, management-ingress, circulation, egress (DIM-ICE) (Still, 2009) is implemented to optimise crowd safety and potentially throughput. Three contrasting case studies represent examples of some of the world’s largest and most challenging crowd safety projects. Findings – The paper provides some insight into how the DIM-ICE model can be used to aid strategic planning at major events, assess potential crowd risks and to avoid potential crowd safety issues. Practical implications – It provides further clarity to what effective place management practice is. Evidence-based on the case studies demonstrates that the application of the DIM-ICE model is useful for recognising potential place crowd safety issues and identifying areas for require improvement. Originality/value – Crowd science is an emerging field of research, which is primarily motivated by place crowd safety issues in congested places; the application and reporting of an evidence-based model (i.e. DIMICE model) add to this. The paper addresses a research gap related to the implementation of analytic tools in characterising place crowd dynamics.

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