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Using isotemporal substitution to predict the effects of changing physical behaviour on older adults’ cardio-metabolic profiles

Ryan, Declan J and Wullems, Jorgen Antonin and Stebbings, Georgina Kate and Morse, Christopher Ian and Stewart, Claire Elizabeth and Onambele-Pearson, Gladys Leopoldine (2019) Using isotemporal substitution to predict the effects of changing physical behaviour on older adults’ cardio-metabolic profiles. PLOS ONE, 14 (10). e0224223-e0224223.

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Abstract

Background It has been advocated that older adults should concomitantly spend less time in sedentary behaviour (SB), and engage in sufficient physical activity (PA), to reduce their risk of cardiometabolic diseases. However, it is not clear what intensity of PA must be done to offset SB engagement. Aim Model how cardio-metabolic profiles could change if older adults replaced an hour per day (hr�day-1) of a physical behaviour intensity with 1 hr�day-1 of another physical behaviour of a different intensity. Methods Older adults (n = 93, 60–89 years old, 55% female) wore a thigh-mounted triaxial accelerometer for seven consecutive free-living days to estimate mean daily hourly engagement in SB, Standing, Light Intensity PA (LIPA), sporadic moderate to vigorous physical activity (sMVPA, bouts <10 continuous minutes), and 10-minute MVPA (10MVPA, bouts �10 continuous minutes. Fasting whole blood concentration of plasma glucose, triglyceride, total cholesterol, and glycated haemoglobin (%), along with serum concentration of lipoprotein lipase (LPL), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and procollagen III N-terminal propeptide (PIIINP) were measured. Results Isotemporal Substitution, with covariate adjustment, suggested that: total cholesterol concentration could theoretically decrease when 1 hr�day-1 of SB is replaced with Standing, when 1 hr.day-1 of LIPA is replaced with Standing, and when 1 hr�day-1 of sMVPA is replaced with Standing. Triglyceride concentration theoretically decreased when 1 hr�day-1 of SB, Standing, LIPA, or sMVPA is replaced with 10MVPA. Triglyceride concentration theoretically increases when 1 hr�day-1 of 10MVPA is replaced with SB, Standing, or LIPA. No associations with time reallocation appears to exist for LPL, HbA1c, IL-6, and PIIINP. Conclusion The type of physical behaviour being replaced could be crucial for total cholesterol maintenance. Engagement in 10MVPA could be necessary to improve triglyceride concentration.

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