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The Metabolites of the Dietary Flavonoid Quercetin Possess Potent Antithrombotic Activity, and Interact with Aspirin to Enhance Antiplatelet Effects.

Stainer, Alexander R and Sasikumar, Parvathy and Bye, Alexander P and Unsworth, Amanda J and Holbrook, Lisa M and Tindall, Marcus and Lovegrove, Julie A and Gibbins, Jonathan M (2019) The Metabolites of the Dietary Flavonoid Quercetin Possess Potent Antithrombotic Activity, and Interact with Aspirin to Enhance Antiplatelet Effects. TH open : companion journal to thrombosis and haemostasis, 3 (3). e244-e258. ISSN 2567-3459

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Abstract

Quercetin, a dietary flavonoid, has been reported to possess antiplatelet activity. However, its extensive metabolism following ingestion has resulted in difficulty elucidating precise mechanisms of action. In this study, we aimed to characterize the antiplatelet mechanisms of two methylated metabolites of quercetin-isorhamnetin and tamarixetin-and explore potential interactions with aspirin. Isorhamnetin and tamarixetin inhibited human platelet aggregation, and suppressed activatory processes including granule secretion, integrin αIIbβ3 function, calcium mobilization, and spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk)/linker for activation of T cells (LAT) phosphorylation downstream of glycoprotein VI with similar potency to quercetin. All three flavonoids attenuated thrombus formation in an in vitro microfluidic model, and isoquercetin, a 3-O-glucoside of quercetin, inhibited thrombosis in a murine laser injury model. Isorhamnetin, tamarixetin, and quercetin enhanced the antiplatelet effects of aspirin more-than-additively in a plate-based aggregometry assay, reducing aspirin IC 50 values by an order of magnitude, with this synergy maintained in a whole blood test of platelet function. Our data provide mechanistic evidence for the antiplatelet activity of two quercetin metabolites, isorhamnetin and tamarixetin, and suggest a potential antithrombotic role for these flavonoids. In combination with their interactions with aspirin, this may represent a novel avenue of investigation for the development of new antithrombotic strategies and management of current therapies.

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