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Physical activity, sedentary time and physical capability in early old age: British birth cohort study

Cooper, AJM and Simmons, RK and Kuh, D and Brage, S and Cooper, R and Hardy, R and Pierce, M and Richards, M and Abington, J and Wong, A and Adams, JE and Machin, M and Stephens, AM and Bonar, K and Bryant, S and Cole, D and Nip, W and Ambrosini, G and Pellerin, D and Chaturvedi, N and Hughes, A and Ghosh, A and March, K and Macfarlane, P and Inglis, L and Friberg, P and Osika, W and Ekelund, U and Mayle, S and Westgate, K and Deanfield, J and Donald, A and Kok, S and Masi, S and Phalora, R and Woodside, J and Bruce, I and Harwood, N and Oughton, E and Chapman, A and Khattar, RS and Nair, SB and Franklyn, J and Palmer, S and Boardman, K and Crabtree, N and Clements, R and Suvari, M and Steeds, R and Craig, K and Howard, E and Morley, T and Scanlon, M and Petit, R and Evans, W and Fraser, A and Edwards, J and Reece, E and Newby, D and Marshall, F and Hannan, J and Miller, C and White, A and MacAllister, R and Harris, J and Singzon, R and Ell, P and Townsend, C and Demetrescu, C and Chowienczyk, P and Darroch, P and McNeill, K and Spector, T and Clements, G and Jiang, B and Lessof, C and Cheshire, H (2015) Physical activity, sedentary time and physical capability in early old age: British birth cohort study. PLoS ONE, 10. ISSN 1932-6203

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Abstract

Purpose To investigate the associations of time spent sedentary, in moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA) and physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) with physical capability measures at age 60-64 years. Methods Time spent sedentary and in MVPA and, PAEE were assessed using individually calibrated combined heart rate and movement sensing among 1727 participants from the MRC National Survey of Health and Development in England, Scotland and Wales as part of a detailed clinical assessment undertaken in 2006-2010. Multivariable linear regression models were used to examine the cross-sectional associations between standardised measures of each of these behavioural variables with grip strength, chair rise and timed up-&-go (TUG) speed and standing balance time. Results Greater time spent in MVPA was associated with higher levels of physical capability; adjusted mean differences in each capability measure per 1standard deviation increase in MVPA time were: grip strength (0.477 kg, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.015 to 0.939), chair rise speed (0.429 stands/min, 95% CI: 0.093 to 0.764), standing balance time (0.028 s, 95% CI: 0.003 to 0.053) and TUG speed (0.019 m/s, 95% CI: 0.011 to 0.026). In contrast, time spent sedentary was associated with lower grip strength (-0.540 kg, 95% CI: -1.013 to -0.066) and TUG speed (-0.011 m/s, 95% CI: -0.019 to -0.004). Associations for PAEE were similar to those for MVPA. Conclusion Higher levels of MVPA and overall physical activity (PAEE) are associated with greater levels of physical capability whereas time spent sedentary is associated with lower levels of capability. Future intervention studies in older adults should focus on both the promotion of physical activity and reduction in time spent sedentary.

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