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SCOPE11 Method for Estimating Aircraft Black Carbon Mass and Particle Number Emissions.

Agarwal, Akshat and Speth, Raymond L and Fritz, Thibaud M and Jacob, S Daniel and Rindlisbacher, Theo and Iovinelli, Ralph and Owen, Bethan and Miake-Lye, Richard C and Sabnis, Jayant S and Barrett, Steven RH (2019) SCOPE11 Method for Estimating Aircraft Black Carbon Mass and Particle Number Emissions. Environmental Science and Technology (Washington), 53 (3). pp. 1364-1373. ISSN 0013-936X


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Black carbon (BC) emissions from aircraft engines lead to an increase in the atmospheric burden of fine particulate matter (PM2.5). Exposure to PM2.5 from sources, including aviation, is associated with an increased risk of premature mortality, and BC suspended in the atmosphere has a warming impact on the climate. BC particles emitted from aircraft also serve as nuclei for contrail ice particles, which are a major component of aviation's climate impact. To facilitate the evaluation of these impacts, we have developed a method to estimate BC mass and number emissions at the engine exit plane, referred to as the Smoke Correlation for Particle Emissions-CAEP11 (SCOPE11). We use a data set consisting of SN-BC mass concentration pairs, collected using certification-compliant measurement systems, to develop a new relationship between smoke number (SN) and BC mass concentration. In addition, we use a complementary data set to estimate measurement system loss correction factors and particle geometric mean diameters to estimate BC number emissions at the engine exit plane. Using this method, we estimate global BC emissions from aircraft landing and takeoff (LTO) operations for 2015 to be 0.74 Gg/year (95% CI = 0.64-0.84) and 2.85 × 1025 particles/year (95% CI = 1.86-4.49 × 1025).

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