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Suppression of SIRT1 in Diabetic Conditions Induces Osteogenic Differentiation of Human Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells via RUNX2 Signalling

Bartoli-Leonard, F and Wilkinson, FL and Schiro, A and Inglott, F Serracino and Alexander, MY and Weston, R (2019) Suppression of SIRT1 in Diabetic Conditions Induces Osteogenic Differentiation of Human Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells via RUNX2 Signalling. Scientific Reports, 9 (1). ISSN 2045-2322

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Abstract

Vascular calcification is associated with significant morbidity and mortality within diabetes, involving activation of osteogenic regulators and transcription factors. Recent evidence demonstrates the beneficial role of Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), an NAD+ dependant deacetylase, in improved insulin sensitivity and glucose homeostasis, linking hyperglycaemia and SIRT1 downregulation. This study aimed to determine the role of SIRT1 in vascular smooth muscle cell (vSMC) calcification within the diabetic environment. An 80% reduction in SIRT1 levels was observed in patients with diabetes, both in serum and the arterial smooth muscle layer, whilst both RUNX2 and Osteocalcin levels were elevated. Human vSMCs exposed to hyperglycaemic conditions in vitro demonstrated enhanced calcification, which was positively associated with the induction of cellular senescence, verified by senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity and cell cycle markers p16 and p21. Activation of SIRT1 by SRT1720 reduced Alizarin red staining by a third, via inhibition of the RUNX2 pathway and prevention of senescence. Conversely, inhibition of SIRT1 via Sirtinol and siRNA increased RUNX2 by over 50%. These findings demonstrate the key role that SIRT1 plays in preventing calcification in a diabetic environment, through the inhibition of RUNX2 and senescence pathways, suggesting a downregulation of SIRT1 may be responsible for perpetuating vascular calcification in diabetes.

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