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QRISK3 improves detection of cardiovascular disease risk in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus

Edwards, N and Langford-Smith, A and Parker, B and Bruce, I and Reynolds, J and Alexander, Y and McCarthy, E and Wilkinson, F (2018) QRISK3 improves detection of cardiovascular disease risk in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Lupus Science & Medicine, 5 (1). pp. 1-6. ISSN 2053-8790

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Abstract

Objective 10-year cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk scores are calculated using algorithms, including Framingham (worldwide) and QRISK2 (UK). Recently, an updated QRISK3 model was introduced, which considers new variables including SLE and steroid prescription, not included in QRISK2 and Framingham algorithms. We sought to determine the extent to which QRISK3 improves identification of high-risk patients with SLE and whether the score relates to standard and novel markers of SLE-specific endothelial dysfunction. Methods Framingham and QRISK2/3 scores were calculated in patients with SLE (n=109) and healthy controls (n=29) using clinical measures. In a smaller cohort (n=58), markers of inflammation and endothelial dysfunction, including CD144+ endothelial microvesicles (EMVs), triglycerides, vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM) and high-sensitivity C reactive protein (hsCRP) were quantified by flow cytometry and ELISA, respectively. Results Patients with SLE demonstrated significantly higher QRISK3 scores than controls (5.0%vs0.3%, p<0.001). 21/109 patients with SLE (19%) and 24/109(22%) were newly identified as being at high risk of a CV event when using QRISK3 versus QRISK2 (29vs8patients) and QRISK3 versus Framingham (29vs5patients; p<0.001), respectively. These ‘new QRISK3’ patients with SLE were more likely to have lupus nephritis, be anticardiolipin antibody positive, currently prescribed corticosteroids, had a higher Body Mass Index and systolic blood pressure (BP) than low-risk patients with SLE. Rates of antiplatelet (8/21) and statin use (5/21) were low in the new QRISK3 group. EMVs, hsCRP and triglyceride levels were significantly higher in new QRISK3 patientscompared with low-risk patients with SLE (p<0.05). Furthermore, pulse wave velocity and VCAM were significantly elevated in all high versus low QRISK3 patients. Conclusions QRISK3 captures significantly more patients with SLE with an elevated 10-year risk of developing CVD, which is associated with measures of endothelial dysfunction; EMVs and systolic BP. The adoption of QRISK3 will enhance management of CVD risk in patients with SLE for improved outcome.

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