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Psychometric Properties of the Training Parenting Style Scale in a Malaysian Sample of Adolescents: Factor Analysis, Internal Consistency, and Measurement Invariance

Ang, CS and Tan, JP and Fam, SY (2016) Psychometric Properties of the Training Parenting Style Scale in a Malaysian Sample of Adolescents: Factor Analysis, Internal Consistency, and Measurement Invariance. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 25 (5). pp. 1505-1514. ISSN 1062-1024

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Abstract

The importance of parenting styles on children’s outcomes, including cognitive, social, academic, and values makes this topic a central concern to social researchers and psychologists. However, past research has reported controversial evidence on the relationship between authoritarian parenting and children’s outcomes in non-Western cultural contexts. This raises awareness on the implication of cultural differences in parenting styles. As a result, the training parenting style scale (TPSS) was proposed based on the Confucian concept of ‘Guan’ and ‘Chiao Shu.’ This scale is allegedly more reflective of the Asian parenting style. The present study examined the psychometric properties and measurement invariance of the Malay version of the TPSS across adolescents’ perceived maternal and paternal training and by adolescent gender. Of the 8 items in the original TPSS, confirmatory factor analysis supported 6-item scale with error correlations was the best-fitting model. Internal consistency was also good for the 6-item scale. Furthermore, support for configural, metric, scalar, residual, and structural invariance emerged across adolescents’ perceived maternal and paternal training and across adolescent gender. Results of this study supported the psychometric properties of the 6-item TPSS after taking into account several cautiously considered limitations.

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