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Photochemistry and photopolymerisation of substituted 2-methylanthraquinones and novel 2-acryloxymethylanthraquinone in radiation curing

Allen, NS and Hamzah, H and Edge, M and Liauw, CM and Catalina, F and Edge, R and Navaratnam, S (2018) Photochemistry and photopolymerisation of substituted 2-methylanthraquinones and novel 2-acryloxymethylanthraquinone in radiation curing. Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology A: Chemistry, 356. pp. 530-544. ISSN 1010-6030

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Abstract

© 2018 Elsevier B.V. Anthraquinones have been the subject of numerous photochemical studies and their photopolymerization activities have been examined under various conditions to improve more efficient photochemical systems. This article involves further detailed investigations into the photophysical, photochemistry and photopolymerisation properties of 4 commercial derivatives of 2-substituted anthraquinone, namely, 2-Bromomethylanthraquinone (2BA), 2 Chloromethylanthraquinone (2CA), 2 Ethylanthraquinone (2EA), 2 Hydroxymethylanthraquinone (2HA) and one novel synthesized anthraquinone, 2 Acryloxymethylanthraquinone (2AA). 2AA is synthesized from 2HA. The results from both spectroscopic and analysis studies proved the 2AA to having the ester link. Absorption spectroscopy and solvent shift data are used to characterise their spectral activity. Luminescence studies involving fluorescence and phosphorescence analysis indicates efficient intersystem crossing to triplet state and n-π* nature of the lowest excited triplet state. The polymerisation activity was studied using methyl methacrylate (MMA) and analysis of the cure rate was measured using the gravimetric method. All the compounds are shown to be highly dependent on the structure. However, the rate of polymerisation (Rp) was reduced in the presence of amine. This is consistent with other results, proving the behaviour of derivatives with n-π* configuration. Hardness tests for all compounds took place using a different formula of acrylated resin/monomer systems. The excited state characteristics of the methyl derivatives have also been examined using micro and nanosecond flash photolysis. Triplet absorption spectra of all the anthraquinone derivatives show a significant red shift in the region of 340–370 nm with increasing solvent polarity due to stabilisation of the lowest triplet state by solvent reorganization. Hydrogen atom abstraction takes place in 2 propanol, forming a semiquinone radical. In the presence of the tertiary amine, triethylamine, all anthraquinone derivatives show the formation of intermediary species related to either the exciplex or the radical ion pair. Under aerobic conditions, the first decay rate for all anthraquinone derivatives increases and showed oxygen to be a good quencher with a bimolecular rate constant of around 2 × 10 8 mol. dm −3 s −1 . Relative to benzophenone, the molar absorption coefficient, ε, and quantum yield of intersystem crossing, Φisc were calculated, and it is summarised that the value for Φisc for all compound is less than 1.00 and controls to a major extent their photochemical activities.

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