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Antiglycation and antioxidant properties of Momordica charantia

Nazhad, Niazi (2015) Antiglycation and antioxidant properties of Momordica charantia. Doctoral thesis (PhD), Manchester Metropolitan University.

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Abstract

Diabetes mellitus is a multifactorial disorder characterised by hyperglycaemia and leads to complications. These complications are caused by advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) that form through protein glycation as a consequence of hyperglycaemia. A diversity of plants are utilised worldwide as traditional medications for the treatment of diabetes mellitus, particularly in developing nations. A considerable quantity of literature has been published on Momordica charantia (MC) as a potent folk medicine for diabetes mellitus. The aim of this study was to investigate the antiglycation and antioxidant effects of HWE and CWE of MC on protein glycation. To examine whether MC can inhibit oxidative stress in endothelial cells by studying oxidative stress-related transcription factor parameters and their expression. Model proteins such as lysozyme and BSA were glycated using sugars (glucose and methylglyoxal) as glycating agents both in the presence and absence of MC extracts. AGE formation and inhibition were monitored by a number of methods. Furthermore, different antioxidant assays were used to study the antioxidant properties of MC. The inhibitory effects of AGEs, glucose, methylglyoxal and MC extracts on proliferation of cultured BAEC were determined in this research. Western blotting was used to examine the potential modulation of the oxidative stress signalling pathways induced by AGEs. Both extracts of MC inhibited the production of AGEs in a dose-dependent fashion and the HWE exhibited the more potent inhibitory effect on AGEs production. Moreover, parameters of oxidative stress including the expression of oxidative stress-related transcription factors were assessed using real-time PCR to study the protective effects of MC. The expressional inhibition of pro-oxidaive genes and enhancement anti-oidative enzymes could be potent element of vascular complications effect of MC extracts. Thus the aqueous extracts of MC, an edible vegetable, may have therapeutic potential in the management of diabetes mellitus.

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