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A Wireless Sensor Network Border Monitoring System: Deployment Issues and Routing Protocols

Hammoudeh, M and Adebisi, B and Al-Fayez, F and Lloyd, H and Newman, R and Bounceur, A and Abuarqoub, A (2017) A Wireless Sensor Network Border Monitoring System: Deployment Issues and Routing Protocols. IEEE Sensors Journal, 14 (8). ISSN 1530-437X

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Abstract

External border surveillance is critical to the security of every state and the challenges it poses are changing and likely to intensify. Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) are a low cost technology that provide an intelligence-led solution to effective continuous monitoring of large, busy and complex landscapes. The linear network topology resulting from the structure of the monitored area raises challenges that have not been adequately addressed in the literature to date. In this paper, we identify an appropriate metric to measure the quality of WSN border crossing detection. Furthermore, we propose a method to calculate the required number of sensor nodes to deploy in order to achieve a specified level of coverage according to the chosen metric in a given belt region, while maintaining radio connectivity within the network. Then, we contribute a novel cross layer routing protocol, called Levels Division Graph (LDG), designed specifically to address the communication needs and link reliability for topologically linear WSN applications. The performance of the proposed protocol is extensively evaluated in simulations using realistic conditions and parameters. LDG simulation results show significant performance gains when compared to its best rival in the literature, Dynamic Source Routing (DSR). Compared to DSR, LDG improves the average end-to-end delays by up to 95%, packet delivery ratio by up to 20%, and throughput by up to 60%, while maintaining comparable performance in terms of normalized routing load and energy consumption.

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