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Graphene-deposited photonic crystal fibers for continuous refractive index sensing applications

Tan, YC and Tou, ZQ and Chow, KK and Chan, CC (2015) Graphene-deposited photonic crystal fibers for continuous refractive index sensing applications. Optics Express, 23 (24). pp. 31286-31294. ISSN 1094-4087

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Abstract

© 2015 Optical Society of America. We present a pilot demonstration of an optical fiber based refractive index (RI) sensor involving the deposition of graphene onto the surface of a segment of a photonic crystal fiber (PCF) in a fiber-based Mach-Zehnder Interferometer (MZI). The fabrication process is relatively simple and only involves the fusion splicing of a PCF between two single mode fibers. The deposition process relies only on the cold transfer of graphene onto the PCF segment, without the need for further physical or chemical treatment. The graphene overlay modified the sensing scheme of the MZI RI sensor, allowing the sensor to overcome limitations to its detectable RI range due to free spectral range issues. This modification also allows for continuous measurements to be obtained without the need for reference values for the range of RIs studied and brings to light the potential for simultaneous dual parameter sensing. The sensor was able to achieve a RI sensitivity of 9.4 dB/RIU for the RIs of 1.33-1.38 and a sensitivity of 17.5 dB/RIU for the RIs of 1.38-1.43. It also displayed good repeatability and the results obtained were consistent with the modeling.

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