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Biofilm development by blastospores and hyphae of Candida albicans on abraded denture acrylic resin surfaces

Jackson, S and Coulthwaite, L and Loewy, Z and Scallan, A and Verran, J (2014) Biofilm development by blastospores and hyphae of Candida albicans on abraded denture acrylic resin surfaces. Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry, 112 (4). pp. 988-993. ISSN 1097-6841

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Abstract

© 2014 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Statement of problem Candida albicans is a known etiologic agent of denture stomatitis. Candida hyphae exhibit the ability to respond directionally to environmental stimuli. This characteristic is thought to be important in the penetration of substrata such as resilient denture liners and host epithelium. It has been suggested that hyphal production also enhances adhesion and survival of Candida on host and denture surfaces. Surface roughness, in addition, can enhance adhesion where stronger interactions occur between cells and surface features of similar dimensions. Purpose The purpose of this study was to assess the development of hyphal and blastospore biofilms on abraded denture acrylic resin specimens and measure the ease of removal of these biofilms. Material and methods Biofilms were grown for 48 hours on abraded 1-cm2denture acrylic resin specimens from adhered hyphal phase C albicans or from adhered blastospores. Subsequently, all specimens were stained with Calcofluor White and examined with confocal scanning laser microscopy. Biofilms were removed by vortex mixing in sterile phosphate buffered saline solution. Removed cells were filtered (0.2-μm pore size). Filters were dried at 37°C for 24 hours for dry weight measurements. Any cells that remained on the acrylic resin specimens were stained with 0.03% acridine orange and examined with epifluorescence microscopy. Results Biofilms grown from both cell types contained all morphologic forms of C albicans. Although the underlying surface topography did not affect the amount of biofilm produced, biofilms grown from hyphal phase Candida were visibly thicker and had greater biomass (P<.05). These biofilms were less easily removed from the denture acrylic resin, especially in the case of rougher surfaces, evidenced by the higher numbers of retained cells (P≤.05). Conclusion The presence of hyphae in early Candida biofilms increased biofilm mass and resistance to removal. Increased surface roughness enhances retention of hyphae and yeast cells, and, therefore, will facilitate plaque regrowth. Therefore, minimization of denture abrasion during cleaning is desirable.

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