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The use of late time response for stand off onbody concealed weapon detection

Atiah, Ali Saied Milad (2012) The use of late time response for stand off onbody concealed weapon detection. Doctoral thesis (PhD), Manchester Metropolitan University.

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Abstract

A new system for remote detection of onbody concealed weapons such as knives and handheld guns at standoff distances presented in this thesis. The system was designed, simulated, constructed and tested in the laboratory. The detection system uses an Ultrawide Band (UWB) antenna to bombard the target with a UWB electromagnetic pulse. This incident pulse induces electrical currents in the surface of an object such as a knife, which given appropriate conditions these currents generate an electromagnetic backscatter radiation. The radiated waves are detected using another UWB antenna to obtain the Late Time Response (LTR) signature of the detected object. The LTR signature was analysed using the Continuous Wavelet Transform (CWT) in order to assess the nature and the geometry of the object. The thesis presents the work which divided into two related areas. The first involved the design, simulation, fabrication, and testing of an Ultra-wide Band (UWB) antenna with operating bandwidth of 0.25 – 3.0 GHz and specific characteristics. Simulated and measured results show that the designed antenna achieves the design objectives which are, flat gain, a VSWR of around unity and distortion less transmitted narrow pulse. The operating bandwidth was chosen to cover the fundamental Complex Natural Resonance (CNR) modes of most firearms and to give a fine enough time resolution. The second area covered by this thesis presents a new approach for extract target signature based on the Continuous Wavelet Transform (CWT) applied to the scattering response of onbody concealed weapons. A series of experiments were conducted to test the operation of the detection system which involved onbody and offbody objects such as, knives, handheld guns, and a number of metallic wires of various dimensions. Practical and simulation results were in good agreement demonstrating the success of the approach of using the CWT in analyzing the LTR signature which is used for the first time in this work. Spectral response for every target could be seen as a distribution in which the energy level and life-time depended on the target material and geometry. The spectral density provides very powerful information concerning target unique signature.

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